SWAG - Secure Web Application Gateway (formerly known as letsencrypt, no relation to Let's Encrypt™) sets up an Nginx webserver and reverse proxy with php support and a built-in certbot client that automates free SSL server certificate generation and renewal processes (Let's Encrypt and ZeroSSL). It also contains fail2ban for intrusion prevention.
lscr.io/linuxserver/swag:latest should retrieve the correct image for your arch, but you can also pull specific arch images via tags.
The architectures supported by this image are:
Validation and initial setup¶
- Before running this container, make sure that the url and subdomains are properly forwarded to this container's host, and that port 443 (and/or 80) is not being used by another service on the host (NAS gui, another webserver, etc.).
- If you need a dynamic dns provider, you can use the free provider duckdns.org where the
www,ftp,cloudwith http validation, or
wildcardwith dns validation. You can use our duckdns image to update your IP on duckdns.org.
httpvalidation, port 80 on the internet side of the router should be forwarded to this container's port 80
dnsvalidation, make sure to enter your credentials into the corresponding ini (or json for some plugins) file under
- Cloudflare provides free accounts for managing dns and is very easy to use with this image. Make sure that it is set up for "dns only" instead of "dns + proxy"
- Google dns plugin is meant to be used with "Google Cloud DNS", a paid enterprise product, and not for "Google Domains DNS"
- DuckDNS only supports two types of DNS validated certificates (not both at the same time):
- Certs that only cover your main subdomain (ie.
yoursubdomain.duckdns.org, leave the
- Certs that cover sub-subdomains of your main subdomain (ie.
*.yoursubdomain.duckdns.org, set the
- Certs that only cover your main subdomain (ie.
--cap-add=NET_ADMINis required for fail2ban to modify iptables
- After setup, navigate to
https://yourdomain.urlto access the default homepage (http access through port 80 is disabled by default, you can enable it by editing the default site config at
- Certs are checked nightly and if expiration is within 30 days, renewal is attempted. If your cert is about to expire in less than 30 days, check the logs under
/config/log/letsencryptto see why the renewals have been failing. It is recommended to input your e-mail in docker parameters so you receive expiration notices from Let's Encrypt in those circumstances.
Security and password protection¶
- The container detects changes to url and subdomains, revokes existing certs and generates new ones during start.
- Per RFC7919, the container is shipping ffdhe4096 as the
- If you'd like to password protect your sites, you can use htpasswd. Run the following command on your host to generate the htpasswd file
docker exec -it swag htpasswd -c /config/nginx/.htpasswd <username>
- You can add multiple user:pass to
.htpasswd. For the first user, use the above command, for others, use the above command without the
-cflag, as it will force deletion of the existing
.htpasswdand creation of a new one
- You can also use ldap auth for security and access control. A sample, user configurable ldap.conf is provided, and it requires the separate image linuxserver/ldap-auth to communicate with an ldap server.
Site config and reverse proxy¶
- The default site config resides at
/config/nginx/site-confs/default.conf. Feel free to modify this file, and you can add other conf files to this directory. However, if you delete the
defaultfile, a new default will be created on container start.
- Preset reverse proxy config files are added for popular apps. See the
/config/nginx/proxy_confsfor instructions on how to enable them. The preset confs reside in and get imported from this repo.
- If you wish to hide your site from search engine crawlers, you may find it useful to add this configuration line to your site config, within the server block, above the line where ssl.conf is included
add_header X-Robots-Tag "noindex, nofollow, nosnippet, noarchive";This will ask Google et al not to index and list your site. Be careful with this, as you will eventually be de-listed if you leave this line in on a site you wish to be present on search engines
- If you wish to redirect http to https, you must expose port 80
Using certs in other containers¶
- This container includes auto-generated pfx and private-fullchain-bundle pem certs that are needed by other apps like Emby and Znc.
- To use these certs in other containers, do either of the following:
- (Easier) Mount the container's config folder in other containers (ie.
-v /path-to-swag-config:/swag-ssl) and in the other containers, use the cert location
- (More secure) Mount the SWAG folder
etcthat resides under
/configin other containers (ie.
-v /path-to-swag-config/etc:/swag-ssl) and in the other containers, use the cert location
/swag-ssl/letsencrypt/live/<your.domain.url>/(This is more secure because the first method shares the entire SWAG config folder with other containers, including the www files, whereas the second method only shares the ssl certs)
- These certs include:
privkey.pem, which are generated by Certbot and used by nginx and various other apps
privkey.pfx, a format supported by Microsoft and commonly used by dotnet apps such as Emby Server (no password)
priv-fullchain-bundle.pem, a pem cert that bundles the private key and the fullchain, used by apps like ZNC
- This container includes fail2ban set up with 5 jails by default:
- To enable or disable other jails, modify the file
- To modify filters and actions, instead of editing the
.localfiles with the same name and edit those because .conf files get overwritten when the actions and filters are updated.
.localfiles will append whatever's in the
- You can check which jails are active via
docker exec -it swag fail2ban-client status
- You can check the status of a specific jail via
docker exec -it swag fail2ban-client status <jail name>
- You can unban an IP via
docker exec -it swag fail2ban-client set <jail name> unbanip <IP>
- A list of commands can be found here: https://www.fail2ban.org/wiki/index.php/Commands
- This container creates a number of configs for nginx, proxy samples, etc.
- Config updates are noted in the changelog but not automatically applied to your files.
- If you have modified a file with noted changes in the changelog:
- Keep your existing configs as is (not broken, don't fix)
- Review our repository commits and apply the new changes yourself
- Delete the modified config file with listed updates, restart the container, reapply your changes
- If you have NOT modified a file with noted changes in the changelog:
- Delete the config file with listed updates, restart the container
- Proxy sample updates are not listed in the changelog. See the changes here: https://github.com/linuxserver/reverse-proxy-confs/commits/master
- Proxy sample files WILL be updated, however your renamed (enabled) proxy files will not.
- You can check the new sample and adjust your active config as needed.
Migration from the old
Please follow the instructions on this blog post.
To help you get started creating a container from this image you can either use docker-compose or the docker cli.
docker-compose (recommended, click here for more info)¶
--- version: "2.1" services: swag: image: lscr.io/linuxserver/swag:latest container_name: swag cap_add: - NET_ADMIN environment: - PUID=1000 - PGID=1000 - TZ=Etc/UTC - URL=yourdomain.url - VALIDATION=http - SUBDOMAINS=www, #optional - CERTPROVIDER= #optional - DNSPLUGIN=cloudflare #optional - PROPAGATION= #optional - EMAIL= #optional - ONLY_SUBDOMAINS=false #optional - EXTRA_DOMAINS= #optional - STAGING=false #optional volumes: - /path/to/appdata/config:/config ports: - 443:443 - 80:80 #optional restart: unless-stopped
docker cli (click here for more info)¶
docker run -d \ --name=swag \ --cap-add=NET_ADMIN \ -e PUID=1000 \ -e PGID=1000 \ -e TZ=Etc/UTC \ -e URL=yourdomain.url \ -e VALIDATION=http \ -e SUBDOMAINS=www, `#optional` \ -e CERTPROVIDER= `#optional` \ -e DNSPLUGIN=cloudflare `#optional` \ -e PROPAGATION= `#optional` \ -e EMAIL= `#optional` \ -e ONLY_SUBDOMAINS=false `#optional` \ -e EXTRA_DOMAINS= `#optional` \ -e STAGING=false `#optional` \ -p 443:443 \ -p 80:80 `#optional` \ -v /path/to/appdata/config:/config \ --restart unless-stopped \ lscr.io/linuxserver/swag:latest
Containers are configured using parameters passed at runtime (such as those above). These parameters are separated by a colon and indicate
<external>:<internal> respectively. For example,
-p 8080:80 would expose port
80 from inside the container to be accessible from the host's IP on port
8080 outside the container.
| ||Https port|
| ||Http port (required for http validation and http -> https redirect)|
Environment Variables (
| ||for UserID - see below for explanation|
| ||for GroupID - see below for explanation|
| ||specify a timezone to use, see this list.|
| ||Top url you have control over ( |
| ||Certbot validation method to use, options are |
| ||Subdomains you'd like the cert to cover (comma separated, no spaces) ie. |
| ||Optionally define the cert provider. Set to |
| ||Required if |
| ||Optionally override (in seconds) the default propagation time for the dns plugins.|
| ||Optional e-mail address used for cert expiration notifications (Required for ZeroSSL).|
| ||If you wish to get certs only for certain subdomains, but not the main domain (main domain may be hosted on another machine and cannot be validated), set this to |
| ||Additional fully qualified domain names (comma separated, no spaces) ie. |
| ||Set to |
Volume Mappings (
| ||All the config files including the webroot reside here.|
This image utilises
sysctl to work properly. This is not implemented properly in some versions of Portainer, thus this image may not work if deployed through Portainer.
Environment variables from files (Docker secrets)¶
You can set any environment variable from a file by using a special prepend
As an example:
Will set the environment variable
MYVAR based on the contents of the
Umask for running applications¶
For all of our images we provide the ability to override the default umask settings for services started within the containers using the optional
-e UMASK=022 setting. Keep in mind umask is not chmod it subtracts from permissions based on it's value it does not add. Please read up here before asking for support.
User / Group Identifiers¶
When using volumes (
-v flags), permissions issues can arise between the host OS and the container, we avoid this issue by allowing you to specify the user
PUID and group
Ensure any volume directories on the host are owned by the same user you specify and any permissions issues will vanish like magic.
In this instance
PGID=1000, to find yours use
id your_user as below:
We publish various Docker Mods to enable additional functionality within the containers. The list of Mods available for this image (if any) as well as universal mods that can be applied to any one of our images can be accessed via the dynamic badges above.
Shell access whilst the container is running:
To monitor the logs of the container in realtime:
Container version number:
Image version number:
Most of our images are static, versioned, and require an image update and container recreation to update the app inside. With some exceptions (ie. nextcloud, plex), we do not recommend or support updating apps inside the container. Please consult the Application Setup section above to see if it is recommended for the image.
Below are the instructions for updating containers:
Via Docker Compose¶
You can also remove the old dangling images:
Via Docker Run¶
Update the image:
Stop the running container:
Delete the container:
Recreate a new container with the same docker run parameters as instructed above (if mapped correctly to a host folder, your
/configfolder and settings will be preserved)
You can also remove the old dangling images:
Via Watchtower auto-updater (only use if you don't remember the original parameters)¶
Pull the latest image at its tag and replace it with the same env variables in one run:
You can also remove the old dangling images:
docker image prune
We do not endorse the use of Watchtower as a solution to automated updates of existing Docker containers. In fact we generally discourage automated updates. However, this is a useful tool for one-time manual updates of containers where you have forgotten the original parameters. In the long term, we highly recommend using Docker Compose.
Image Update Notifications - Diun (Docker Image Update Notifier)¶
We recommend Diun for update notifications. Other tools that automatically update containers unattended are not recommended or supported.
If you want to make local modifications to these images for development purposes or just to customize the logic:
The ARM variants can be built on x86_64 hardware using
Once registered you can define the dockerfile to use with
- 30.11.23: - Existing users should update: site-confs/default.conf - Fix index.php being downloaded on 404.
- 23.11.23: - Run certbot as root to allow fix http validation.
- 01.10.23: - Fix "unrecognized arguments" issue in DirectAdmin DNS plugin.
- 28.08.23: - Add Namecheap DNS plugin.
- 12.08.23: - Add FreeDNS plugin. Detect certbot DNS authenticators using CLI.
- 07.08.23: - Add Bunny DNS Configuration.
- 27.07.23: - Added support for dreamhost validation.
- 25.05.23: - Rebase to Alpine 3.18, deprecate armhf.
- 27.04.23: - Existing users should update: authelia-location.conf, authelia-server.conf, authentik-location.conf, authentik-server.conf - Simplify auth configs and fix Set-Cookie header bug.
- 13.04.23: - Existing users should update: nginx.conf, authelia-location.conf, authentik-location.conf, and site-confs/default.conf - Move ssl.conf include to default.conf. Remove Authorization headers in authelia. Sort proxy_set_header in authelia and authentik.
- 25.03.23: - Fix renewal post hook.
- 10.03.23: - Cleanup unused csr and keys folders. See certbot 2.3.0 release notes.
- 09.03.23: - Add Google Domains DNS support,
- 02.03.23: - Set permissions on crontabs during init.
- 09.02.23: - Existing users should update: proxy.conf, authelia-location.conf and authelia-server.conf - Add Authentik configs, update Authelia configs.
- 06.02.23: - Add porkbun support back in.
- 21.01.23: - Unpin certbot version (allow certbot 2.x). !!BREAKING CHANGE!! We are temporarily removing the certbot porkbun plugin until a new version is released that is compatible with certbot 2.x.
- 20.01.23: - Rebase to alpine 3.17 with php8.1.
- 16.01.23: - Remove nchan module because it keeps causing crashes.
- 08.12.22: - Revamp certbot init.
- 03.12.22: - Remove defunct cloudxns plugin.
- 22.11.22: - Pin acme to the same version as certbot.
- 22.11.22: - Pin certbot to 1.32.0 until plugin compatibility improves.
- 05.11.22: - Update acmedns plugin handling.
- 06.10.22: - Switch to certbot-dns-duckdns. Update cpanel and gandi dns plugin handling. Minor adjustments to init logic.
- 05.10.22: - Use certbot file hooks instead of command line hooks
- 04.10.22: - Add godaddy and porkbun dns plugins.
- 03.10.22: - Add default_server back to default site conf's https listen.
- 22.09.22: - Added support for DO DNS validation.
- 22.09.22: - Added certbot-dns-acmedns for DNS01 validation.
- 20.08.22: - Existing users should update: nginx.conf - Rebasing to alpine 3.15 with php8. Restructure nginx configs (see changes announcement).
- 10.08.22: - Added support for Dynu DNS validation.
- 18.05.22: - Added support for Azure DNS validation.
- 09.04.22: - Added certbot-dns-loopia for DNS01 validation.
- 05.04.22: - Added support for standalone DNS validation.
- 28.03.22: - created a logfile for fail2ban nginx-unauthorized in /etc/cont-init.d/50-config
- 09.01.22: - Added a fail2ban jail for nginx unauthorized
- 21.12.21: - Fixed issue with iptables not working as expected
- 30.11.21: - Move maxmind to a new mod
- 22.11.21: - Added support for Infomaniak DNS for certificate generation.
- 20.11.21: - Added support for dnspod validation.
- 15.11.21: - Added support for deSEC DNS for wildcard certificate generation.
- 26.10.21: - Existing users should update: proxy.conf - Mitigate https://httpoxy.org/ vulnerabilities. Ref: https://www.nginx.com/blog/mitigating-the-httpoxy-vulnerability-with-nginx#Defeating-the-Attack-using-NGINX-and-NGINX-Plus
- 23.10.21: - Fix Hurricane Electric (HE) DNS validation.
- 12.10.21: - Fix deprecated LE root cert check to fix failures when using
STAGING=true, and failures in revoking.
- 06.10.21: - Added support for Hurricane Electric (HE) DNS validation. Added lxml build deps.
- 01.10.21: - Check if the cert uses the old LE root cert, revoke and regenerate if necessary. Here's more info on LE root cert expiration
- 19.09.21: - Add an optional header to opt out of Google FLoC in
- 17.09.21: - Mark
SUBDOMAINSvar as optional.
- 01.08.21: - Add support for ionos dns validation.
- 15.07.21: - Fix libmaxminddb issue due to upstream change.
- 07.07.21: - Rebase to alpine 3.14.
- 24.06.21: - Update default nginx conf folder.
- 28.05.21: - Existing users should update: authelia-server.conf - Use
resolver.confand patch for
- 20.05.21: - Modify resolver.conf generation to detect and ignore ipv6.
- 14.05.21: - Existing users should update: nginx.conf, ssl.conf, proxy.conf, and the default site-conf - Rework nginx.conf to be inline with alpine upstream and relocate lines from other files. Use linuxserver.io wheel index for pip packages. Switch to using ffdhe4096 for
dhparams.pemper RFC7919. Added
worker_processes.conf, which sets the number of nginx workers, and
resolver.conf, which sets the dns resolver. Both conf files are auto-generated only on first start and can be user modified later.
- 21.04.21: - Existing users should update: authelia-server.conf and authelia-location.conf - Add remote name/email headers and pass http method.
- 12.04.21: - Add php7-gmp and php7-pecl-mailparse.
- 12.04.21: - Add support for vultr dns validation.
- 14.03.21: - Add support for directadmin dns validation.
- 12.02.21: - Clean up rust/cargo cache, which ballooned the image size in the last couple of builds.
- 10.02.21: - Fix aliyun, domeneshop, inwx and transip dns confs for existing users.
- 09.02.21: - Rebasing to alpine 3.13. Add nginx mods brotli and dav-ext. Remove nginx mods lua and lua-upstream (due to regression over the last couple of years).
- 26.01.21: - Add support for hetzner dns validation.
- 20.01.21: - Add check for ZeroSSL EAB retrieval.
- 08.01.21: - Add support for getting certs from ZeroSSL via optional
CERTPROVIDERenv var. Update aliyun, domeneshop, inwx and transip dns plugins with the new plugin names. Hide
donoteditthisfile.confbecause users were editing it despite its name. Suppress harmless error when no proxy confs are enabled.
- 03.01.21: - Existing users should update: /config/nginx/site-confs/default.conf - Add helper pages to aid troubleshooting
- 10.12.20: - Add support for njalla dns validation
- 09.12.20: - Check for template/conf updates and notify in the log. Add support for gehirn and sakuracloud dns validation.
- 01.11.20: - Add support for netcup dns validation
- 29.10.20: - Existing users should update: ssl.conf - Add frame-ancestors to Content-Security-Policy.
- 04.10.20: - Existing users should update: nginx.conf, proxy.conf, and ssl.conf - Minor cleanups and reordering.
- 20.09.20: - Existing users should update: nginx.conf - Added geoip2 configs. Added MAXMINDDB_LICENSE_KEY variable to readme.
- 08.09.20: - Add php7-xsl.
- 01.09.20: - Existing users should update: nginx.conf, proxy.conf, and various proxy samples - Global websockets across all configs.
- 03.08.20: - Initial release.
Created: August 3, 2020